Online Bibliography Generator

A Guide To Referencing









A Guide to Referencing

What is a bibliography?

A bibliography is a list of books, articles, online information that have been read, referred to or directly quoted from as part of your research for an assignment.

Reasons for a bibliography

It is important in this age of technology and information rich society that we acknowledge all sources of information used for assignments. This includes both in-text acknowledgement, as well as a list of references at the end of the assignment (bibliography). It is important so that the reader (or marker) has the opportunity to locate and check the source. Strict guidelines must be adhered to so as to prevent a charge of plagiarism.

What is plagiarism?

Plagiarism is the using of part or whole of another person’s research without citation or reference.

There are some techniques for avoiding a charge of plagiarism. These include using quotes and paraphrasing.


Sometimes you may find information that is perfect and you want to use it exactly as written. This is called a direct quote. There are two things to know about direct quotes and both relate to LENGTH.

a. Short Quotes

Tugboats are the strongest of all boats in terms of weight to mass. They use diesel fuel and, according to Twist (2006, p. 28), ‘the most powerful tug can keep a damaged oil tanker afloat’.

b. Long Quotes

Tugboats are especially useful in busy ports where they behave like dolphins, nudging the larger boats toward their berths. The Nikolay Chiker is one such tug and, as Twist (2006, p. 28) notes, it is a

Marine salvage tug, which means that it recovers either shipwrecks or their cargos… [ellipse added to illustrate that you are skipping some of the words]. It has a small hospital on board and a helipad … winches contain 15km of cable, to pull up abandoned ships at the bottom of the ocean.


Paraphrasing is using someone’s ideas by putting them into your own words. You are not using the author’s exact words BUT their ideas! You must still reference the author as the source of your ideas. It is essential to acknowledge the source, otherwise ‘this is plagiarism and is regarded as cheating’ (Forrestal, 2000, p. 33).

Steps for paraphrasing:

  1. Read the original text.
  2. Write down your version of it, changing the keywords and structure of the sentence(s). Do this without referring to the text, this helps to ensure you have understood the ideas and are able to make sense when using your own words. Sentence structure and vocabulary should be different to the original.
  3. Complete the referencing process.

Tugboats are impressive boats which can house not only water pumps to move two Olympic swimming pools per hour, but also a helipad (Twist, 2006, p. 28). Here is an example of a bibliography: These notes are based on: A Guide to Referencing. Perth College, Perth. TKS Online. The Kings School, Sydney.

Here is an example of a bibliography:


Carpenter, R. & Smith, J. 2004, ‘Reading the evidence’, Forensic Science Resources [Online] Available <>, Accessed 2 September 2008.

Forrestal, P. 2000, Look it up: A reference book for students, 4th ed., Nelson, Melbourne.

Omri, B. & Summers, V. 1985, Plants and animals, Arrow Books, Melbourne.

Phillips, N. [producer] 2008, Transporting chimps with Debbie Cox in Williams, R [presenter] The Science Show [podcast] Available <>, Accessed 13 June 2009.

Sterling, M J. 2010, Algebra 1 for Dummies [Online] 2nd ed., Wiley Publishing, New Jersey, Available <>, Accessed 11 August 2010.

Webster, I. 2012 (personal communication) Mandurah Sea Rescue, Interviewed 22 June.

These notes are based on:
A Guide to Referencing. Perth College, Perth.
TKS Online. The Kings School, Sydney.